分布式发电:技术提供能量的积累

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Storage
作者 Dario Rossi

在微网,存储的能量通过存储系统的装置,是具有根本的重要性。事实上,在潜在的负载峰值,微电网可能无法应对负载变化没有能源的可即时提供。 

当使用可再生能源发电的海量存储系统变得至关重要。事实上,主要的障碍,可再生能源的部署一个是其不连续性,尤其是涉及到太阳能,风能,并在一定程度上,小型和微型水力发电。 

为了充分利用这些主要来源,植物需要的存储系统具有的充放电循环,并具有最高的净能量产出可能的。在这个意义上说,能量储存是有价值的,当所回收的净能量较少使用的辅助设备(泵,换热器,控制器等)的操作的能量的能量输入大于70%。 

在经典的电力网络中,最简单的能量存储系统是与发电机的转动惯量:当在网络中增加的负载,功率的初始缺陷是满意的系统的惯性,在一个小的费用减少网络的频率。在微网的情况下,为了保持该限制范围内的电压和频率,快速响应,而不是必要的。由于这个原因,大多采用的系统电池,飞轮和超级电容器。 

电池是最传统的设备储能:在此情况下,由于能量是在一个连续的电流的形式,与逆变器的接口是必要的。否则,飞轮积蓄的能量在高速(高达100000转)和耦接在旋转马达/发电机。 

旋转发生在高速,由于存储的能量的量是实际上正比于速度的平方。最后,在静电电荷的形式的超级电容器(大容量的电解电容)储存能量。这些成分具有相当大的速度放电的:因此,它们可以用于在微电网快速的负载变化。 

下表显示的主能量储存技术的各种特性之间的比较的示例。

最后,电池和飞轮的一些典型特征示于下表中。

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