Plan to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases expected in GU

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Why a national emissions plan

The CIPE Interministerial Committee for Economic Planning-its meeting on 8 March 2013 approved the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Plan, to update the previous plan approved by resolution no. 123/2002 and amended by subsequent resolution no. 135/2007

The plan responds to specific commitments of the Community and international instruments for the reduction of emissions for the programming period 2013-2020: in simple terms the "Kyoto Protocol", which became binding international 16 February 2005 following the deposit of the instrument of ratification by Russia, after the ratification precisely by at least 55 countries have signed the Convention including a number of Annex I countries that is attributable at least 55% of the calculated emissions at 1990.

The term "Kyoto Protocol" means the international agreement signed on 7 December 1997 by more than 160 countries attending the third session of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Purpose of the Protocol is one of the aspects of climate change: the reduction, through concerted action at the international level, emissions of greenhouse gases.

The Kyoto Protocol does not provide constraints on emissions for all signatory countries (over 160), but only for those listed below nell'Annex I: A list of 39 countries, including OCSE countries - so-Italy and countries with economies in transition to the market. This choice was made in implementing the principle of "common but differentiated responsibility" according to which, in the control of emissions, industrialized countries take charge of more responsibility, taking into account the needs of economic development of developing countries (PVS ).

The burden of emission reduction has been distributed among the Annex I countries unevenly, in view of the degree of industrial development, income and levels of energy efficiency. In particular, the EU has been planned as part of the reduction targets of the Protocol, cutting emissions by 8%, which in turn distributed among the Member States of the Union, set for Italy a reduction target of 6.5%.

General commitments under the Protocol are:

-Improving energy efficiency;
-Correction of market imperfections (through tax incentives and subsidies);
-The promotion of sustainable agriculture;
-The reduction of emissions in the transport sector;
-Information to all other Parties on actions taken (so-called "national communications").

To ensure flexible implementation of the Protocol and a reduction of total costs imposed on the economic systems of the countries subject to the following constraints were introduced flexible mechanisms:

- L'emission-trading (trading of emission rights), art. 3 of the Protocol, under which the countries subject to the constraint that fail to achieve a surplus in reducing emissions can "sell" this surplus to other countries subject to constraint - on the contrary - are not able to achieve the objectives;
- joint implementation (JI of individual obligations), as provided by art. 6 of the Protocol, under which groups of countries subject to restrictions, including those set out from Annex I, can work together to achieve the goals set by agreeing on a different distribution of obligations in relation to what is stipulated in the Protocol, provided that it is the obligation overall. To this end, they may transfer to, or acquire from, any other country "emission reduction units" (ERUs) carried out through specific projects to reduce emissions;
- the clean development mechanisms (mechanisms Clean Development), provided by art. 12 of the Protocol, the purpose of which is to provide assistance to Parties not included nell'Annex The efforts to reduce emissions. Individuals or the governments of Annex I countries that provide such assistance can be obtained in exchange for the results achieved in developing countries through projects, "Certified Emission Reductions" (CERs) the amount of which is calculated for the attainment of target.

Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for trading greenhouse gas emission in the Community - called Emission Trading System (ETS), provides for the establishment of a Europe-wide carbon market as early as 2005 to complement emissions trading expected in 2008 on a global scale by the Protocol. This directive was subsequently amended by Directive 2004/101/EC (the so-called Linking Directive), which recognized the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol (Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism) within the ETS, establishing the validity of claims emission (obtained through the implementation of these projects) to meet its obligations to reduce emissions.

Directive 2008/101/CE has included the assets of aviation in the ETS.

Directive 2009/29/CE concerning the revision of the European emissions trading emission of greenhouse gas emissions (Emission Trading System - ETS) for the period after 2012, amended Directive 2003/87/EC (transposed into 'national law by Legislative Decree no. 216/2006) giving priority to intervention on the scope (Article 2) defined in greater detail with regard to the combustion system and extended to other gases other than CO2. He also envisaged the possibility of excluding small plants (ie plants with total annual emissions lower than 25,000 tonnes of CO2 and, where activities are carried out combustion with a rated thermal input below 35 MW), provided that the emissions from these plants are regulated with measures that reduce "equivalent" to that which would have been imposed if they had stayed within the ETS. E 'was also introduced the possibility of establishing simplified rules for the monitoring, reporting and verification in favor of systems characterized, in 2008-2010, by emissions of less than 5,000 tonnes per year of CO2 (art. 27). The method of allocating allowances (Articles 10 to 10-c), the new directive provides that allowances are allocated through auction. More precisely, for plants producing electricity, the installations for the capture of CO2 pipelines for the transport of CO2 or CO2 storage sites will be totally the assignment for consideration ("full auctioning"), with the exception of district heating and cogeneration as defined by Directive 2004/8/EC for economically justifiable demand, compared to the generation of heat or cooling.

For installations for which it is provided for the free allocation of allowances, the art. 10-bis, paragraph 11 of the Directive provides for a gradual transition to "full auctioning", in particular, the first year will be allocated free of charge 80% of the amount due, while in subsequent years the percentage of free allocation will be reduced linearly to reach 30% in 2020 (which means free allocation, as an average for the period, amounting to 55% of the amount due).

During the 18th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 18) and the 8th Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (COP / MOP 8), held in Doha (Qatar) from 26 November to 8 December 2012, has been committed to the continuation beyond 2012 of measures under the Protocol by a group of countries (including the EU, Australia, Switzerland and Norway), which represents only about 15% of global emissions of greenhouse gases. The 200 participating countries have instead launched, as from 1 January 2013, a process aimed at achieving, by 2015, a new agreement will enter into force in 2020.

The ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by Italy was effected by the law 120/2002, which also bears a series of measures aimed at achieving the objectives of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

For the financing of measures aimed at limiting and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases has intervened art. 1, paragraphs 1110-1115 of Law 296/2006 (Budget 2007), which established at the CDP SpA, a revolving fund for the provision of low-interest loans (in public or private) of measures to implement the Kyoto Protocol, with a budget of € 200 million for each year of the 2007-2009 period. This rule was implemented only with the Ministerial Decree environment November 25, 2008. For the effective operation of the fund, however, has had to await the publication of the circular of 16 February 2012 the Ministry of Environment, on the modalities of provision of low-interest loans provided by the Fund, which took place in OJ n. 51, 03.01.2012, S.O. Then the art. 57 of Decree Law 83/2012 (enacted by Law 134/2012) spoke on the use of resources from the Revolving Fund, on the one hand, by changing the range of sectors in which the recipients of funding and, on the other, providing that funding be used for projects that must provide the permanent employment of persons aged less than 35 years. Part of the resources of the Fund was subsequently allocated, art. 1, paragraph 8 of Decree Law 129/2012, for a maximum amount of € 70 million, the redevelopment and environmental improvements in the area including the site of national interest (SIN) of Taranto. In implementation of Article. 57 of Decree Law 83/2012 was issued Circular 18 January 2013, n. 5505 of the Ministry of Environment, which shows the following breakdown in ceiling of Fund resources: 380 million euro allocated to companies, 10 million in investment projects proposed by srl simplified (SRLs) and € 70 million reserved in accordance with the Decree Law 129/2012, the financing of measures for environmental upgrading and included in the SIN of Taranto.

The Leg. 216/2006, amended by art. 4, paragraph 9-sexies of Decree Law 97/2008 (converted into Law 129/2008), art. 27, paragraph 47 of Law 99/2009, as well as art. 4, paragraph 1, of Decree Law 135/2009, has also implemented the directives on emission trading in Italian. With the Leg. Dec. 30, 2010, n. 257 was transposed Directive 2008/101/CE with a view of the inclusion of aviation activities in the ETS. is still in progress transposition (act of Government 528) of Directive 2009/29/EC repealing Decree. 216/2006 in order to adapt to EU rules.

Additional measures related to the implementation of the Protocol have been provided in a number of regulatory measures, mainly focused on the promotion of renewable energy and the promotion of efficiency and energy savings.

The document, prepared by the Minister after consultation with other Ministers concerned, the state of implementation of the commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, annexed to the DEF (document Economics and Finance) 2012, presents the situation of greenhouse gas emissions to 2011 and preliminary estimates for 2012 indicate actions to be taken to bridge the gap that separates Italy from reaching its Kyoto.Lo same document also contains an assessment of the emissions scenarios with a time horizon to 2020 suitable for achieve the objective laid down for "non ETS" by Decision 406/2009 of 23 April 2009 (the effort sharing, see below) and indicates the priority actions to be implemented in order to put the country on the right path towards it. The document noted that the average annual gap in the period 2008-2012 is estimated at about 25 MtCO2eq.

The document also points out that, since the contribution to the total emission of the national ETS sectors can be considered to be unchangeable, so you will need to focus interventions on emissions from non-ETS sectors (for which Italy must achieve, according to the effort sharing decision, the 2020 target of 13% reduction compared to 2005 levels).

It should be noted, in fact, that for the sectors not covered by the Directive 2009/29/EC (the so-called "non ETS" identified roughly with the areas of agriculture, transport and civil), the decision of the European Parliament and of the Council no. 406/2009 of 23 April 2009 (Decision on the effort of Member States to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in order to fulfill the commitments of the Community relating to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by 2020 - cd. Decision "effort sharing") establishes, for each EU Member State, mandatory targets for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. For Italy, the reduction target is 13%, compared to 2005 levels, to be achieved by 2020.

Therefore, the aim of the measures outlined in the plan is to center the EU target of reducing emissions by 2020, through coordinated actions in order to meet EU commitments on reducing emissions by 25% by 2020 (compared to 1990 levels) to pursuant to Decision 406/2009/CE.


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