Efficienza Energetica : Evoluzione del quadro normativo

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di Felice Lucia

L’intero patrimonio edilizio per uso civile (residenziale e terziario) consumava, nel 2007, 42,8 Mtep. Nel 2009, il consumo è passato a 46,9Mtep, ripartite in 28,6 Mtep del settore residenziale e 18,3 Mtep del terziario.

Le percentuali di consumo energetico degli edifici ad uso civile per l'anno 2009 sono espresse di seguito:
Residenziale +3%
Terziario +4,1%
Nel residenziale, in particolare, i consumi per riscaldamento, raffrescamento e produzione di acqua calda sanitaria rappresentano il 22% del consumo primario di energia. Sono inoltre in aumento i consumi elettrici per il raffrescamento e apparecchi “bruni”. Nel 2010, i consumi nel residenziale sono cresciuti a circa 29.4 Mtep a fronte di un consumo totale del civile (residenziale e terziario) pari a circa 48Mtep.

La Direttiva 32/2006/CE sull’efficienza degli usi finali dell’energia e servizi energetici (abrogata dalla dir. 2012/27/Ue), imponeva agli Stati membri di dotarsi di un Piano di Azione per l’efficienza energetica (PAEE). A seguito di ciò, ciascuno degli Stati membri ha predisposto il proprio Piano di Azione tenendo conto, oltre che della Direttiva citata, anche di altre che fanno riferimento all’efficienza energetica negli edifici: la direttiva 91/2002/CE sul rendimento energetico nell'edilizia (abrogata dalla dir. 31/2010/CE); la direttiva Eco Design 32/2005/CE (abrogata dalla dir. 2009/125/Ce), recepita in Italia con il Decreto legislativo 16 febbraio 2011, n. 15; e quella sugli Acquisti verdi della Pubblica amministrazionesul conosciuta come direttiva GGP Green Public Procurement (direttiva 2004/18/CE, abrogata dalla dir. 2012/27/Ue) da recepire entro il 5 giugno 2014.

Il Quadro di Riferimento Europeo è dunque il seguente:

Direttiva 31/2010/CE, sulla prestazione energetica nell’edilizia.

- Direttiva 2012/27/Ue sull'efficienza energetica. 

Per quanto riguarda, invece, il Quadro Nazionale, si hanno:

Decreto legislativo 19 agosto 2005, n. 192;
- Decreto legislativo 29 dicembre 2006, n. 311;

Decreto Legislativo 115/08;
DPR 59/09;
L.G. per la certificazione energetica 26/6/09;
Decreto Legislativo 28/2011;

DPR Ispezione Impianti;

Dl 4 giugno 2013, n. 63.

Nel dettaglio, con la Direttiva 91/2002/CE si ha il Decreto legislativo 19 agosto 2005 n. 192 (modificato con successive modifiche e integrazioni) rubricato “Recepimento quadro della direttiva”;

a questo seguono :
-DPR 2 aprile 2009, n. 59 “Metodologie per il calcolo della prestazione energetica di edifici e impianti” (da abrogare in attuazione del Dl 63/2013)
-DM 26 giugno 2009 “Linee guida nazionali per la certificazione energetica degli edifici” 
-DPR 75/13 “Requisiti dei professionisti abilitati alla certificazione e ispezione impianti termici”.

Tra gli indirizzi della Direttiva 31/2010/CE, vi sono: il rafforzamento del ruolo della certificazione energetica degli edifici; produzione e consegna del certificato energetico al proprietario e al conduttore, in caso di nuove costruzioni, o nei trasferimenti immobiliari, nel caso di nuovi contratti di affitto; obbligo di certificazione degli edifici pubblici o a uso pubblico  esteso anche agli immobili di superficie utile maggiore di 500 m2 (dopo cinque anni, 250 m2); SM che prevedano l'obbligo di pubblicazione della prestazione energetica già negli annunci commerciali di vendita e di locazione.

La direttiva 31/2010/ce, recepita in Italia con Dl 4 giugno 2013, n. 63 prevede, dal 31 dicembre 2020, che gli edifici di nuova costruzione (2018 per gli edifici pubblici) abbiano una altissima prestazione energetica (“nearly zero energy buildings”), in presenza di una significativa quota del fabbisogno coperta da fonti rinnovabili; per gli edifici esistenti, invece, essa considera tra i parametri di valutazione per la riqualificazione quello dei costi benefici e determina un sistema di metodologia di calcolo comparativa per la verifica dei parametri standard determinati dagli Stati membri.

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